There are people out in the industry that will tell you recruiting is Selling, and Selling is Recruiting. They are wrong. Selling is Transaction based, and Recruiting is Transformation based. Selling is a one time event, where Recruiting births many events in the future. Selling is about CLOSING people. Recruiting is about OPENING futures. Don't be misled. They are 2 totally different processes, with different skill sets needed, no matter what some folks say.
Internet marketing lead generation is without doubt the best way for you to attract the most prospects possible to your business. The tricky part is how to effectively use network marketing lead generation without wasting a lot of time. You could spend hours just spinning your wheels online and not acquire near enough leads to justify the time. We’d like to share a few of our short- and long-term strategies for how to effectively make your business boom through network marketing lead generation.
As an independent contractor, driving for an on demand economy company gives you the ability make money with your extra time. Drive during your lunch break, at night, or during busy weekends – it’s up to you. However, these companies don’t only provide taxi-style services; companies like HopSkipDrive enable the driver to chauffeur kids to their activities around town, similar to a nanny. Other rideshare companies allow the individual to use their vehicle to make extra cash by renting it out or sharing a ride to work. If you have a car, then there’s an on demand economy opportunity out there for you.
Hello John your tips are all very helpful.I am starting my home business and this is my first time.I tried my best to concentrate and will never give up.My small business is helping mothers in our community.They said that this business really help them to earn extra money.But still I know that deep inside I am not yet satisfied.Because I know that there is something missing or there is something wrong in my running of my business. .I hope you can give me more tips about this.
MLM Success training for Massive MLM Success- - Part One of “The Blazing Top 52 MLM SUCCESS Tips" that will set your Network Marketing and MLM Business OnFIRE! Time tested tactics that will set you apart from the average Network Marketer, and keep your business stoked and totally ABLAZE! Bookmark this page and refer back to it! Send it to your Team and SET THEIR BUSINESS ABLAZE!!! 

4. Be consistently persistent. Most network marketers give up too early. They expect to make $10,000 their first month, and when they don't, they quit. But it takes time to build an MLM business. You're going to have to contact a lot of people, give many presentations and endure a great deal of rejection. However, it's the person who is consistently persistent who will succeed.
I LOVE your sincerity and generous offer. I am going to get your traffic blueprint. YOu have covered so much gems in just one post! My best pick is – "There are people worse off than you than have succeeded far more. There are no valid excuses to not becoming wealthy, stop giving excuses any energy, they don’t serve you." Have a Wonderful Giving Life!
Who wants to get fit, look younger, and lose weight? Jeunesse, meet your global target market: everyone. With their crazy sales numbers, I wouldn’t be surprised if they are selling to just about everyone in the world. Jeunesse routinely make the list for the top 20 MLMs in the world, and they’re doing about $1.4 billion in annual revenue. Not only are you selling a very well-trusted product, but the sign up cost is also one of the lowest out there ($30).
Great article and you nailed it regarding purchasing leads. I tried a few times talking with various people over the phone but none committed. I often wonder how the greats like Dexter Yager and Bill Britt (both amway reps) built their businesses to such a large magnitude without the use of social media. I certainly believe social media has made building network marketing businesses much easier than back in the day.

For the distribution of goods after manufacturing, the product has to go through the distributor, wholesaler and finally the retailer before reaching the hands of the consumer. A MLM company shorten the supply chain shorter by directly selling to consumers. A claim they say helps to save cost for consumers. Speaking about cost savings, find out the best rate using our  home loan comparison and  personal loan comparison  tool
A few people do make big money from MLMs. And these people are often trotted out in promotional videos, celebrated at annual events, and very publicly ‘rewarded’ with prizes like prestigious cars (although these ‘prizes’ aren’t as generous as they first appear – you simply get a discount on the lease which you must take out in your own name, and if your sales fall, the discount ends…). You also need to promote the company on the car they ‘give’ you.

If you insist on trying one of these MLM offers, the least you can do is look for proper business registration with BBB, toll free number, and proper address (no Post Office box). Also, you will need lots of family and friends to make it work. As a final step, check the MLM materials for one or more of these "red flags" that are associated with the worst of the offerings:
People want to live a fun and free life – that’s what we’re selling. So when you’re using Social Media to grow your business, give people something good to watch. Post family pictures, post lifestyle pictures, post about you traveling and things you’re doing. The more you post about lifestyle and stories, the more your audience grows to know, like, and trust you.
Writing MLM-specific articles is another great way of establishing authority inside of MLM. When people type in a search term or phrase on a specific MLM topic, and an article appears with the networkers name as the author, if the article answers a specific question, and is not just a spam piece, then the reader will visit the site to learn more about the author.

Tons of great tips, John. What holds most people back is their mindset. I had to go through almost thirteen years of personal development to really get my thinking right. I was my own worst enemy. I also think it’s important to pick one company, find a mentor, develop a game plan, work every day, and stay with one company for 10+ years. Just my two cents. What do you think?

Recruit new members. Just like you were recruited to a network marketing company, you'll have to recruit members to your team if you want to be successful. Always be on the lookout for new prospects who you think will be valuable additions to your team. Try recruiting services like: MLMRC. Also, you'll want someone who is personable, a good salesperson, and a team player committed to cooperating with you.


You may or may not know, but it is against Facebook’s Terms and Conditions to promote any business on your personal profile. A lot of people don’t know that, but having a Fan Page gives you instant credibility and authority with your market and more people will take you seriously about your business. If you don’t have a Facebook Fan Page yet make sure to check out my training below in the resources section called Unlimited Fan Page Profits.
Many of the beautiful sites offered no type of ongoing training, and that was something that really needs to be be a part of any good MLM leads programs. The sites we recommend all provides training which also includes scripts, handling objections, presentation, following up, closing, and other MLM leads topics. There are some HOT MLM leads sites out there that truly delivered on this qulaity of MLM leads training.
Thank you for this article! I’m with Doterra, like a lot of other people I didn’t start out selling. I just wanted to use the product. But, when you see such great results you can’t help but tell people. I love working for this company!! I have worked for Tupperware, Amway, Jafra, It Works, I never made money like I am with doTerra. Hands down its the best!! I’m working hard to build my business and it is paying off and I’m reaping the benefits for my health. God’s Design for our Natural health care is top notch! I give God all the glory and I couldn’t do this without him.

MLM salespeople are, therefore, expected to sell products directly to end-user retail consumers by means of relationship referrals and word of mouth marketing, but most importantly they are incentivized to recruit others to join the company's distribution chain as fellow salespeople so that these can become down line distributors.[3][6][7] According to a report that studied the business models of 350 MLMs, published on the Federal Trade Commission's website, at least 99% of people who join MLM companies lose money.[8][9] Nonetheless, MLMs function because downline participants are encouraged to hold onto the belief that they can achieve large returns, while the statistical improbability of this is de-emphasised. MLMs have been made illegal or otherwise strictly regulated in some jurisdictions as a mere variation of the traditional pyramid scheme, including in mainland China.[10][11]
Too many people get caught up in the hype of potential big income from MLM, that they don't pay enough attention to what the company is asking you to sell. You can’t sell something or share your business if you don’t genuinely have pride in what you are representing. Do your MLM research and partner with a company that has a product you can get excited about. Don't forget to look into the company's compensation plan before you join and make sure it is favorable to you.
You are right in that most MLM have monthly dues and have high entry fees to be distributors or consultants. You are also right in that most MLM companies focus on recruitment and not product sales. I’ve been working with Arbonne now for quite a while and none of those comments apply to this company, which is why I believe they have survived and are only growing at this point, despite some people’s opinion that they will soon be relics like Mary Kay. To become a consultant is a mere $75 dollars, the kit is involved with all free samples and material. Product loading is prohibited. Each event we host regularly ends with most if not all attendees becoming a preferred client for $20 joining fee for the first year and a $15 renewal every year with no monthly expectation and a guaranteed minimum of 20% off of all stock at all times and 40% off of all packages at all times. Not only that consultants can will their business down 6 generations, and the Mercedes incentive is for a purchase, not a lease. We do look to grow our network, but we emphasize this takes hard work and is not a get rich quick scheme. While you hit the nail on the head with most MLM businesses, there are MLM businesses like Arbonne who are a cut above the rest and who are in the habit of not putting pressure on anyone attending to either purchase or join as a consultant. We only want the best in our network and we have thousands of examples of very successful men and woman to show for it. Great article!!!
I have just seriously started to have online research regarding network marketing business sinced my wife always convinced me to help her doing MLM business.she didn’t succeed yet almost 3years now but then when I read your tips on how doing MLM business successfully I felt very happy.I believed this will help us my wife to become MLM successful in the future.thank you so much for posting helpful tips…
Our MLM Autoresponder Leads are fresh & responsive, and they have specifically stated that they are seeking information on starting an internet home-based business. They are high quality leads from 100% Opt-in sources, and are never generated through email or spam marketing. We guarantee that you will be the exclusive holder of the Leads for your primary Opportunity, never re-selling the same lead to anyone else who is promoting the same MLM or Network Marketing business. We also guarantee that we will not sell the leads more than 2 times total.

Multi-level marketing is a legitimate business strategy, though it is controversial. One problem is pyramid schemes, which use money from new recruits to pay the people at the top, often take advantage of people by pretending to be engaged in legitimate multi-level marketing. You can spot pyramid schemes by their greater focus on recruitment than on product sales.
As with all MLMs, the real money to be made isn’t in selling their products but in recruiting more people to join your team (basically, doing the work for you). So the real winners are the person who started the business and the very first people she recruited. This top of the pyramid is also where all of the success stories tend to come from. Among the most vulnerable to these pyramid schemes are people in smaller towns and rural areas. Market saturation prevents growth in a small town, because once everyone you know starts selling it, no one can make any money and you’ve essentially created your own competition.
Your very own leads administration panel, so that you can access your mlm leads online from any location, any time. You have the ability to pause your mlm leads, set a max leads per day and adjust later if you wish, update billing information, order more mlm leads, export leads to your computer via csv or excel, and much more. You may also check out our business resources page.
5. Stop trying to motivate them and inspire them instead. One of the most common questions I get is “How do I motivate my team?” Before you learn that Braveheart speech, realize that I think there is a better way and that is to inspire your team with YOUR action. The best thing you can do for YOUR team is rank advance and show them that the system works.
I have a friend who is proposing I join Arbonne? She would be good to work with although I am not educated on all the MLM companies and don’t want to make the wrong choice. I also have a blog which I want to leverage and it seems like most of the health and wellness MLMs utilize hosted parties. Are there any that are more internet based that have had a long time track record! Thanks and sorry for all the questions!
Although emphasis is always made on the potential of success and the positive life change that "might" or "could" (not "will" or "can") result, it is only in otherwise difficult to find disclosure statements (or at the very least, difficult to read and interpret disclosure statements), that MLM participants are given fine print disclaimers that they as participants should not rely on the earning results of other participants in the highest levels of the MLM participant pyramid as an indication of what they should expect to earn. MLMs very rarely emphasize the extreme likelihood of failure, or the extreme likelihood of financial loss, from participation in MLM. MLMs are also seldom forthcoming about the fact that any significant success of the few individuals at the top of the MLM participant pyramid is in fact dependant on the continued financial loss and failure of all other participants below them in the MLM pyramid.
Formerly known as Odesk and Elance, Upwork is one of the most comprehensive websites for finding freelance gigs. By signing up to freelance on Upwork, you have access to more than 4 million potential clients. Projects are available in the areas of Web, mobile & software development, engineering & architecture, writing & translation, administrative support, sales & marketing and more.

Udemy is the leading marketplace for the most-up-to date, on-demand online courses. Instructors can create and design their own courses and join 16,000 other instructors in this vibrant online educational community. No teaching experience is required, and instructors make an average of $7,000/course. Keep 100% of the revenue when you promote your course and 50% when Udemy promotes it.


Internet marketing lead generation is without doubt the best way for you to attract the most prospects possible to your business. The tricky part is how to effectively use network marketing lead generation without wasting a lot of time. You could spend hours just spinning your wheels online and not acquire near enough leads to justify the time. We’d like to share a few of our short- and long-term strategies for how to effectively make your business boom through network marketing lead generation.
The worst thing you could ever do for your personal life and friendships would be to make your future meetings awkward. It is suggested to leave your friends and family approach tucked away, for just a little while, at least until you understand proper network marketing prospecting and recruiting better (if you have the support and backing of an experienced network marketer there with you, then go for it).
Now that people are jumping on board the MLM business train, I find many are searching for the best ways to build their business. Many leaders offer MLM tips and, but I have something extra special for you today… You see, many of those leaders only give you at the most 10 MLM tips. And some of the tips they provide will only work for certain MLM businesses. The tips I am going to give you will work for any and all MLM businesses.

The question of how to be successful in network marketing haunts every beginner and even the moderately experienced ones. People have turned it into some kind of a myth and are going crazy figuring out just how to be successful in multilevel marketing or network marketing business. I have taken it upon myself to help everyone who is perplexed by this and debunk this myth.


The worst thing you could ever do for your personal life and friendships would be to make your future meetings awkward. It is suggested to leave your friends and family approach tucked away, for just a little while, at least until you understand proper network marketing prospecting and recruiting better (if you have the support and backing of an experienced network marketer there with you, then go for it).


But the truth is, an MLM lead purchase is NOT a purchase, but an investment in your business. One good MLM lead can produce tens of thousands of dollars in volume and revenues. If you understand that, then the pricing should not be as important as the quality and training of the Network marketing lead company. And of course, REPUTATION had a lot to do with the selection as well. Some companies that came across really well, when checked on, did not have a very good reputation for MLM Leads and service.
Challenge: Turn each one of your passion points into a Facebook Live and talk about it…. you will start to relate to your audience and you’ll get some good engagement doing this. If your new to Facebook Lives and you need some coaching on what to do before, during and after…I have a free downloadable resource that will help you. It’s My Ultimate Guide To Facebook Lives and I’ll leave it in the show notes below for you to download.

The main attraction of the binary plan is that distributors are only required two downline recruits. Why is this a good thing? Because once you recruit more than two distributors and these excess distributors are placed below your downline, you can start earning commissions; this is a much lower recruitment requirement than other compensation plans.
Whiners complain about what they don’t have and don’t know. Winners figure out how to get what they don’t have and learn what they don’t know. Because of the low cost of entry of network marketing, there is a plethora of people that would fall into the whiners category. Fortunately, no whiners read my blog as they think I am yelling at them so congrats on being a winner!
From those dreams, develop your goals. A dream is the big picture, and goals are the steps that will get you to your dreams. For example, let's say your dream car is a Mercedes SL65 with a cost of $225,000 and a monthly payment of around $3,800. What are the steps you need to take to achieve that dream? An increase in your income might be necessary, so your goal would be to increase your monthly income to, let's say, $10,000.

To get to the point… one important way to build trust from your readers would be to provide value-based content that your audience can benefit from. Providing this worthwhile information will create a spellbinding magnetism causing your audience to develop a thirst for more. This action alone will build trust and in turn your readers will begin to like you and look up to you as an authority in your niche.

50. People today are too sharp to be hyped. Hype comes from the head, and mouth. Hope comes from the Heart and emotions. Don’t hype someone, as you will come across like a huckster. Be sincere, come from the heart, and talk to them about the Hope your company and products offer them, not GETTING RICH. You can cover that part later, sincerely and heartfelt, when they have decided that your offer is worth listening to. 

At the other end of the spectrum is buying leads. This is also not the best option since it can be very expensive and may result in leads that may not actually be interested in your products or business. These are not great leads, either. The best leads will always be the ones you generate yourself—people who have shown some sort of interest in what you have to offer.

Parking Panda is the #1 solution for online parking reservations. Are you a parking garage operator? Parking Panda can help increase traffic to your garage by providing you with serious internet visibility, and it allows you to change rates based on special events and peak hours, gather detailed reporting, and improve customer experience.Own a private space you’re not using all the time? Post a free listing with ParkingPanda and earn immediate cash when someone books your spot. Set your own price and schedule, and you’re ready to start making money!
Then figure out where your target customers can be found—both physically and virtually. College students who need more income can be found on campus or on online forums or websites about learning to manage your money. Athletes and people who lead healthy lifestyles can be found at gyms and online groups or websites about running, yoga, healthy eating, and more. 

If you insist on trying one of these MLM offers, the least you can do is look for proper business registration with BBB, toll free number, and proper address (no Post Office box). Also, you will need lots of family and friends to make it work. As a final step, check the MLM materials for one or more of these "red flags" that are associated with the worst of the offerings:
The following is a list of organizations that according to their website descriptions provide MLM lead lists. Database Systems Corp. is not affiliated with any of these organizations nor does it promote or endorse the products and services of these companies. These websites provide various types of leads including business marketing leads, business opportunity leads, opt in MLM leads, network marketing leads, home business leads etc.
The Direct Selling Association (DSA), a lobbying group for the MLM industry, reported that in 1990 only 25% of DSA members used the MLM business model. By 1999, this had grown to 77.3%.[26] By 2009, 94.2% of DSA members were using MLM, accounting for 99.6% of sellers, and 97.1% of sales.[27] Companies such as Avon, Electrolux, Tupperware,[28] and Kirby were all originally single-level marketing companies, using that traditional and uncontroversial direct selling business model (distinct from MLM) to sell their goods. However, they later introduced multi-level compensation plans, becoming MLMs.[23] The DSA has approximately 200 members[29] while it is estimated there are over 1,000 firms using multi-level marketing in the United States alone.[30]
Not all MLM companies are created equal. Many see an initial burst of success followed by a gradual tapering off of profits, causing them to collapse and go out of business. MLM companies that succeed have sound business models, both for those who run the company and for those who sell product and recruit new sales agents. There are many sites devoted to MLM rankings, creating lists of companies likely to provide a return on investment to sales agents interested in the industry.
The Direct Selling Association (DSA), a lobbying group for the MLM industry, reported that in 1990 only 25% of DSA members used the MLM business model. By 1999, this had grown to 77.3%.[26] By 2009, 94.2% of DSA members were using MLM, accounting for 99.6% of sellers, and 97.1% of sales.[27] Companies such as Avon, Electrolux, Tupperware,[28] and Kirby were all originally single-level marketing companies, using that traditional and uncontroversial direct selling business model (distinct from MLM) to sell their goods. However, they later introduced multi-level compensation plans, becoming MLMs.[23] The DSA has approximately 200 members[29] while it is estimated there are over 1,000 firms using multi-level marketing in the United States alone.[30]
"Network marketing" and "multi-level marketing" (MLM) have been described by author Dominique Xardel as being synonymous, with it being a type of direct selling.[6] Some sources emphasize that multi-level marketing is merely one form of direct selling, rather than being direct selling.[23][24] Other terms that are sometimes used to describe multi-level marketing include "word-of-mouth marketing", "interactive distribution", and "relationship marketing". Critics have argued that the use of these and other different terms and "buzzwords" is an effort to distinguish multi-level marketing from illegal Ponzi schemes, chain letters, and consumer fraud scams.[25]
Recruit new members. Just like you were recruited to a network marketing company, you'll have to recruit members to your team if you want to be successful. Always be on the lookout for new prospects who you think will be valuable additions to your team. Try recruiting services like: MLMRC. Also, you'll want someone who is personable, a good salesperson, and a team player committed to cooperating with you.
Don’t be just another clueless sponsor who’s always wondering how to be successful in MLM without taking responsibility for his team. It’s fine if you have some people in your network that are lazy or just won’t budge, but you have to take responsibility for the ones who have potential. You have to become inspirational by taking action yourself. It will take your success in MLM business to the next level and will also teach your team how to be successful in network marketing so they can crush it too!
Thanks for the list. As with anything it’s a matter of opinion and you have to put in the work to see results. If you’re just doing parties in your hometown, that’s probably not going to work. With all the tools you have in the Internet you can really promote whatever it is you’re selling. If you want to be successful with a good company, you have to look at it as a business and roll up your sleeves.
So the bigger your network, the larger will be the sales thus big commissions every week or month. Best part is passive income/residual income. Once you have a big team you get commission from sale made by people u dont even know because they were referred by some 100th guy but u still make money for that sale although your effort was nothing in it. It may sound easy but creating and training  your network takes a lot of time and efforts. THIS IS NOT A GET RICH QUICK SCHEME !!  But if you work hard you can earn money in short period of time u would never earn in jobs.
Question your recruiter. When you've found a company you're interested in, you'll likely meet with a recruiter or another representative. Be skeptical during the recruitment process. Remember that your sponsor makes more money if you sign on, so he may not be as open with you as he could be. Don't get distracted by promises of how much money you'll make and really think about what you're about to do.[4]

A very key point in this business is to invest as much of your time on those you sponsor as you do on your own business. If you fully understand that unless everyone you sponsor is successful you won’t be. This is why you must become a teacher in the most basic way. Be honest and be very logical. Take whatever you learn from your leadership and pass it down. Do not become a free spirit and begin doing your own thing.

"Network marketing" and "multi-level marketing" (MLM) have been described by author Dominique Xardel as being synonymous, with it being a type of direct selling.[6] Some sources emphasize that multi-level marketing is merely one form of direct selling, rather than being direct selling.[23][24] Other terms that are sometimes used to describe multi-level marketing include "word-of-mouth marketing", "interactive distribution", and "relationship marketing". Critics have argued that the use of these and other different terms and "buzzwords" is an effort to distinguish multi-level marketing from illegal Ponzi schemes, chain letters, and consumer fraud scams.[25]


The overwhelming majority of MLM participants (most sources estimated to be over 99.25% of all MLM distributors) participate at either an insignificant or nil net profit.[12] Indeed, the largest proportion of participants must operate at a net loss (after expenses are deducted) so that the few individuals in the uppermost level of the MLM pyramid can derive their significant earnings. Said earnings are then emphasized by the MLM company to all other participants to encourage their continued participation at a continuing financial loss.[13]
The reason I started Apache Leads way back in 2003 was that I was a Diamond level distributor for a San Diego based MLM company and had quite a large business. None of my associates had any access to leads, so that's how we got started. The demand for leads grew so fast that I had to focus on getting quality, affordable leads in ever increasing numbers.
For the distribution of goods after manufacturing, the product has to go through the distributor, wholesaler and finally the retailer before reaching the hands of the consumer. A MLM company shorten the supply chain shorter by directly selling to consumers. A claim they say helps to save cost for consumers. Speaking about cost savings, find out the best rate using our  home loan comparison and  personal loan comparison  tool
Your network marketing story, on the other hand, should be the full explanation as to why you are doing what you are doing in the first place. It should tell people who you are (and how that qualifies you to do what you do), how you got started in your network marketing career, why you love what you do, and how your network marketing career has changed your life.
Many people are scared of the prospect of getting into network marketing. They’ve heard all about the myths and misunderstandings surrounding the industry, also known as multilevel marketing, and so they shy away from it. To be sure, a multilevel marketing (MLM) business has just about as much success as any other business, if not more, and there are plenty of great network marketing companies out there, like Acti Labs, that have brought massive success to their members. It doesn’t matter what kind of home business you start as the real success of the business comes from the work you put in to build the business.
They have the stay-at-home-mother meets women entrepreneur mixture working for them. What does that even mean? Means they have the practicality side of the company that is off the product and they have the sales, entrepreneur people them promoting it, too. Anyone who follows MLM knows its usually too “product practical” (see: Tupperware, Cutco) or too “opportunity-centric” (see: Herbalife).
Writing and commenting in MLM niche forums is yet again another great way to generate free MLM leads. Network marketers hang out on forums reading, writing and asking questions. When a new expert shows up on the forum answering specific questions, the regular readers will go investigating to find out who they are, and a new relationship will start to form.
Multi-level marketing is a legitimate business strategy, though it is controversial. One problem is pyramid schemes, which use money from new recruits to pay the people at the top, often take advantage of people by pretending to be engaged in legitimate multi-level marketing. You can spot pyramid schemes by their greater focus on recruitment than on product sales.

MLM companies have been trying to find ways around China's prohibitions, or have been developing other methods, such as direct sales, to take their products to China through retail operations. The Direct Sales Regulations limit direct selling to cosmetics, health food, sanitary products, bodybuilding equipment and kitchen utensils. And the Regulations require Chinese or foreign companies ("FIEs") who intend to engage into direct sale business in mainland China to apply for and obtain direct selling license from the Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM").[63] In 2016, there are 73 companies, including domestic and foreign companies, that have obtained the direct selling license.[64] Some multi-level marketing sellers have circumvented this ban by establishing addresses and bank accounts in Hong Kong, where the practice is legal, while selling and recruiting on the mainland.[10][65]


Prequalified prospects, sales referrals, or genealogy lists, whatever name is used, MLM leads are the lifeblood of any MLM (multi-level marketing) business, and without a continuous supply, the network marketing distributor will go broke and have to close down their MLM business. The question most networkers ask is “where do I get the best possible MLM leads for little or no money?” Are they generated on the internet, bought from an MLM lead-generation company, worked in the local market or found among friends and family? The answer is easier than it may seem; all of the above. 
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